Pursuant to Article 34 of Law No. 4 of 2009 on Mineral and Coal Mining (“Mining Law”), mining business can be divided into two types:
(i) Mineral mining; and
(ii) Coal mining.
The Governmental Regulation No. 23 of 2010 on the Implementation of Mineral and Coal Mining Business Activities (“GR 23/2010”) states that the implementation of mineral and coal mining business activities is fundamentally purposed to benefit the society as a whole.
The classifications of mineral mining are:
- Mining of radioactive mineral, including radium, thorium, uranium, monazite and other radioactive minerals;
- Mining of metal mineral, including lithium, beryllium, magnesium, kalium, calcium, gold, copper, silver, lead, zinc, tin, nickel, manganese, platinum, bismuth, molybdenum, bauxite, mercury, wolfram, titanium, barite, vanadium, chromite, antimony, cobalt, tantalum, cadmium, gallium, indium, yttrium, magnetite, iron, galena, alumina, niobium, zirconium, ilmenite, chrome, erbium, ytterbium, dysprosium, thorium, cesium, lanthanum, niobium, neodymium, hafnium, scandium, aluminum, palladium, rhodium, osmium, ruthenium, iridium, selenium, telluride, strontium, germanium, and zenotime;
- Mining of non-metal mineral, including diamond, corundum, graphite, arsenic, quartz sand, fluorspar, criolite, iodine, bromine, chlorine, sulfur, phosphate, halite, asbestos, talc, mica, magnesite, yarosite, ocher, fluorite, ball clay, fire clay, zeolite, kaolin, feldspar, bentonite, gypsum, dolomite, calcite, chert, pyrophillite, quartzite, zircon, wollastonite, limestone, dolomite, yarosite, tawas (alum), quartz rocks, perlite, rocksalt, clay, and limestone for manufacturing cement; and
- Mining of rocks that include pumice, trass, toseki, obsidian, marble, perlite, diatomaceous earth, fullers earth, slate, granite, granodiorite, andesite, gabro, peridotite, basalt, trachyte, leucite, ball clay, soil fill, pumice, opal, Chalcedony, chert, quartz crystal, jasper, chrysoprase, silicified wood, gamet, jade, agate, diorite, topaz, large quarry rock piles, excavated hill gravels, river gravels, river rocks, river gravels sieved without sand, sand fill, sieved sand, natural sandy gravels, onyx, seasand, and sand which does not contain metal minerals.
Coal mining includes solid bitumen, asphalt, colt, and peat.
In the case that there is a change in the abovementioned classification shall be determined by the authorized Minister.